Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 4th International Conference on Depression, Anxiety and Stress Management Frankfurt, Germany.

Day 2 :

Conference Series Stress 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker Monica Mendes photo
Biography:

Monica Mendes is a Specialist in Clinical Psychology with over 10 years’ experience in Psychotherapy and Counselling for a variety of emotional and situational problems.
She customizes therapy to suit each client, drawing from a variety of techniques to enable patients to find the best path to healing and growth. She coordinated the Psychology and Mental Health Department of the Lisbon University Medical Health Center for over 12 years and was Assistant Professor of Developmental Psychology
and Educational Psychology for 14 years in the Higher Institute of Sciences and Education (ISEC). As a Senior Supervisor of Clinical Psychology trainee of the Portuguese Board of Psychology, she coordinated the Psychotherapy and Clinical Psychology Consultation of the College Pedagogical and Counselling Center of the Faculty of Psychology of Lisbon University, Portugal and Co-founded the Early Intervention Center for Child Development and Family Support in Portugal.

Abstract:

This study aims to describe the risk factors and protective factors for prevalence of depressive symptomatology among young men in a Portuguese non-clinical representative community sample, with ages between 18 and 29. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scales (CES-D; Radloff, 1977), and a questionnaire including sociodemographic variables, general health variables and interpersonal stress factors were mailed to a sample of 1480 subjects. A phone line was available and local papers asked for collaboration. Sixty three young men aged between 18 and 29 answered the CES-D and the questionnaire and found a high level intensity of depressive symptomatology in this sample (18.56+13.7 CES-D mean score). Logistic regression has shown that recent unemployed young men, non college and young men living in rural areas have a significant higher of being depressed in comparison with employed men, college students or young men living in urban areas. It also has shown an increment risk of depression symptomatology among young men with previous depressive episodes, high concerns about body appearance and weight and high concerns about sexual performance. Nevertheless, being employed and/or being student and a self-perceived good health state (self-perceived) founded to be high protective factors for depressive symptomatology. The need for preventionfocused programs for that specific gender group (especially recent unemployed young men, with previous depressive episodes and/or high concerns about body appearance and weight) is discussed.

Keynote Forum

Anat Ben-Artsy

Valiant Clinic, UAE

Keynote: A reconceptualization of depression as a psychic autoimmune disease

Time : 10:15-11:00

Conference Series Stress 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker Anat Ben-Artsy photo
Biography:

Anat Ben Artsy is a MA licensed Clinical Psychologist, Psychodynamic Psychotherapist and Supervisor at Schneider Children’s Medical Center, Israel. She has worked with civilians (children and adults) in distress following damage to their homes during times of war. She has years of experience in psychotherapy in children, adolescents and adults, as well as teaching and supervising in hospital and education settings – Tel-Aviv University and Bar-Ilan University. She focuses on the reconceptualization of depression. This reconceptualization of depression as a psychic autoimmune disease facilitates a significant improvement in psychotherapy. Using this reconceptualization illuminates the process of the attack on the self and massive self-destruction manifested in depression. She found some support for the above from biological research regarding the connection between depression and autoimmune disease.

 

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: The attack against the self and massive self-destruction that we see in depressive individuals elicits the question, why do people (i.e., the Self) allow it to happen? Researchers have linked individual depressive symptoms to immune
activation biomarkers; others found evidence that many genes identified as risk alleles for depression were also associated with immune factors related to pathogen host defense. The “infection-defense" hypothesis proposes that immune vulnerability to infection elicits depressed mood. Autoimmune diseases and infections are risk factors for subsequent mood disorder diagnosis.
In autoimmune disease, the body’s defense system attacks healthy tissues rather than threatening invaders. Freud's Project for a Scientific Psychology attempted to define mental processes in neurological terms. Solan compared the process of the healthy narcissistic immune system in the self to the activity of the biological immune system.
Purpose & Method: The purpose of this study is to focus on the role of the psychic immunological system as related to the unbearable emotional pain inflicted by the acknowledgement of reality, disappointment, guilt, anxiety or aggression. A comparison is made between a healthy process versus clinical depression. Moreover, the defense mechanisms underlying depression including
their processing and links to the psychic immune system, are examined. Furthermore, the study has elaborated their goals and their primary and secondary gains for the individual as they relate to the destruction of the self.
Conclusion & Significance: Theoretically, there is a wide spectrum or continuum between how the healthy psychic immune system copes with loss (e.g., sadness, sorrow, grief) and depressive phenomena (in its various forms). Depression is understood as functioning like a psychic autoimmune disease against the self.
Recommendation: This reconceptualization of depression as autoimmune disease can explain the process of attack against the self and self-destructive behavior. It may provide an important metaphor to work-through in treatment.

 

Break: Networking and Refreshments Break 11:00-11:15 @ Foyer

Keynote Forum

Anna Contardi

European University of Rome, Italy

Keynote: Causal analysis and multilevel motivational structure: New procedures of assessment

Time : 11:15-12:00

Conference Series Stress 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker Anna Contardi photo
Biography:

Anna Contardi is an Assistant Professor, Psychotherapist and Researcher in Clinical Psychology since 2009. She teaches “Cognitive and Personality Psychology” and “General Psychodiagnostics and Laboratory” for the undergraduate and graduate psychology courses at the European University of Rome. She is the Coordinator of the MA in Psychology for the UER and has been a Member of the Doctoral Committee (Cognitive Psychology and Clinical Assessment) at the same university. She collaborates with the research group of the Institute Skinner of Rome, to build a causal cognitive model. Her main research topics includes: attention and therapeutic processes, cognitive causal psychology, psychological diagnosis and clinical investigation, food addiction and Binge eating and disorders.

Abstract:

In the last years, the interest in clinical psychology in the scientific research about mind has shifted from a focus on mental contents centrality to cognitive process analysis. At present, interests, motivations and aims represent the fulcrum of the mental working models, based on the analysis of feed-forward psychological processes. The cognitive perspective offers a further version of functional analysis (increasing it from 3 to 7 columns) and of downward arrow technique (causal analysis technique) dedicated to highlighting the motivational aspects of the observed behaviour. This new technique is used in the assessment phase as a necessary tool in understanding the deep levels of structure the personality and the dynamics, which produces the psychological disease. The basic hypothesis is that there is present in a person a multilevel motivational structure capable of explaining the origin, the meaning and the role of a person’s each and every behaviours. The assessment aim is to specify the different motivational levels related to several aspects, in which the individual fulfils himself: oneself area, relational area, self-efficacy, area of the psychophysiological wellbeing, area of control or vital wish the world has particular characteristics, considered absolutely necessary. Defining the structure starts with the purpose of the action and the causal analysis is used to ask the subjects why it is important to achieve that goal and then, resuming its response, continue to ask what it wants to achieve as long as it expresses the desired condition, the priority interest, which explains the personological operation in the area investigated. These five areas of motivational structure levels are chained by a syllogism between motivational area of control and wellbeing until area of self.
Knowledge of the individual’s motivational structure improves the diagnostic work and allows a more incisive therapeutic plan.

  • Workshop
Location: Eifel

Session Introduction

Deb Saville

Education & Training Consultants Pty. Ltd, Australia

Title: I wish I had a brain tumour

Time : 12:00-12:45

Speaker
Biography:

Deb Saville is highly qualified, has over 30 years’ experience in training, coaching, and quality evaluation and was known as The Energiser Bunny. In 2012 the energy started to fade and niggly health issues started; feeling nauseaus, often fatigued, seeing flashing lights. A three year roller coaster ride through the gamut of medicos and health systems followed to try and get answers and solutions. Diagnosed with Benign Vestibular Paroxysmia, MTH-FR Genetic Disorder and Lyme-Like Disease the roller coaster ride continued. Western Medicine has no answers, indeed is part of the problem. Deb shares her journey in the hope that medicos build better customer relations through a holistic approach with a personal touch.

Abstract:

I was known as the Energiser Bunny and Queen of Preparation, running two successful businesses, MC’ing Concerts aimed at raising funds for worthy causes. In 2012 my energy and skills insidiously started to seep away. There followed a three year journey to seek answers….in 2015 I had 3 diagnoses – the Trifecta if you will – and the blow delivered that I had to stop work.
Then came the roller-coaster ride of my illnesses, partnered with the confusion, frustration and powerlessness of having to deal with ‘the system(s)’, the politics of Western medicine and navigating a way through.A brain tumour would be easier! If you are working in any capacity in the medical system, either as a service professional, administrative position maybe you will be interested in hearing my story.

  • Sessions: Stress Therapies | Anxiety | Depression | Work Stress | Schizophrenia | Mental Health Rehabilitation
Location: Eifel
Speaker

Chair

Andrew J Ashworth

Bonhard Medical Ltd, UK

Speaker

Co-Chair

Paolo Scapellato

European University of Rome, Italy

Session Introduction

Sophia Almpani

Costeas Geitonas School, Greece

Title: Intervention in the school field

Time : 12:45-13:15

Speaker
Biography:

Sophia Almpani is a Psychologist with MSc in School Psychology and a Family Therapist at Costeas Geitonas School. She is also a Coordinator of the School Psychology Department who draws and implements with her team the psychological services towards the school community. Her aim is to promote mental health in the school environment by administrating programs of social and emotional education inside classroom. At the same time, having a strong history in the field of diagnosis and treatment of emotional and behavioral disorders, helps children, adolescents and their families, on an individual basis, to confront difficulties and achieve change. As a Systemic Therapist, she believes in the power of cooperation between school, children, families and social services, when needed, and she ensures that the above mechanism works for the benefit of children. She has supported families suffering from mood disorders, behavioral problems, divorce, grief, loss and chronic illness.

Abstract:

At CGS the school psychology department draws and implements the services towards the school community – children/ teachers/families with a systemic point of view. Our services expand in two basic axes: Promoting mental health, by implementing Primary Prevention Programs in classrooms, according to the developmental needs of each age group. At Nursery we work on diversity, at First Grade on Team building, at Second, on Feelings, at Third, on Self-image, at Fourth, on Conflict, at Fifth, on Bulling and at Sixth, on sex education. With adolescents we work on safer – internet, professional orientation and exam anxiety. The second’s axe target is to identify any psychological mood disorder in our student population and treat it properly. Children experience separation anxiety, peer pressure, performance anxiety, divorce, grief and chronic illness. We follow a structure which includes observation, psychological assessment, therapeutic sessions and counseling with parents. Based on family’s narratives, change occurs. A differentiated procedure of thinking occurs, communication patterns change, personal attitudes change, and a better feeling is stated. We present the following case study: John is a 6-year-old boy.
His teacher reports a deep sad feeling. His mother reports death anxiety. John’s sister, Anna, is diagnosed with cancer. She had a surgery recently. She is under chemotherapy and cannot attend school. Our department drew the classroom intervention plan such as explanation of illness through metaphor-sometimes beautiful gardens needs medicine to grow stronger; communication with Anna using technology; communication with the hospital’s psychologists and preparing party on her birthday. Psychological assessment of John involved psychoeducational support; counseling with parents; referral to the Grief Organization “Merimna”. The above intervention had following impact: 1. according to family’s narrations, John is feeling better, attending the appointments with the school psychologist. His drawings are colorful. 2. Anna’s parents feel comfortable at the sessions in “Merimna”. Anna will soon attend school.

Break: Lunch Break @ 13:15-14:00 @ Rastaurant Palate Friend

Rae Farmer

Next Steps - learning for life Ltd, UK

Title: How to keep the energy vampires from the door?

Time : 14:00-14:30

Speaker
Biography:

Rae Farmer is the Director/CEO at Gangster of Light and Next Steps - Learning for Life Ltd, UK. She uses a mix of person-centred therapies including Reiki to support individuals and groups to move forward with their goals to find a place where they are able to bounce forward from traumatic experiences, taking the lessons of those experiences and moulding themselves into a new chapter. She has 23-years experiences of supporting children, young people and adults to find a safer space to be. Her career includes: developing a City-wide early intervention programme for CAMHS, creating ‘Urban Education’ an off-site education facility for children who were excluded from mainstream educational settings, developing well-being programmes for primary school’s children who are used throughout Newcastle and Gateshead. She is also a qualified independent domestic and sexual violence Adviser with 4 years experiences of being Operations Manager for a domestic violence charity prior to setting up her own Social Enterprise, Next Steps – Learning for Life Ltd and a community interest company called ‘Gangsters of Light’.

Abstract:

What do you do to ensure that your energy levels are not zapped or stolen from you whilst working with others who need to feel lighter? Do you have any conscious thoughts about emotional self-protection? Many of us who work with vulnerable individuals describe feeling exhausted, drained, and sometimes even numb after working with others. Many children and young people describe feeling dark, heavy or shattered after hearing or watching information which is emotional.
Emotional Armouring (EA) is a tool which can aid us to protect ourselves whilst supporting others and day to day in the world we live. Rae Farmer has developed the concept of Emotional Armouring and has successfully used this throughout her 23-year career supporting children, young people and adults who are experiencing conflict, chaos or change. Emotional Armouring and its benefits is now being used within primary schools in the UK to enable children and staff to build their levels of emotional resilience, self-awareness and general robustness within day to day life. Rae intends to share her experiences of using EA both with children and adults and discuss how she has taken this concept and developed emotional risk assessment tools to minimize emotional hazards in various settings including; schools and places of work. Evidence so far points to the overall benefits of EA within emotional resilience and protection for children and adults alike. ‘How to keep the energy vampires from the door?’ is a book written by Rae exploring this concept and can be purchased directly from Rae at the conference at a discounted price. Her risk assessment tools: The Emotional Risk Assessment (ERA) and The Resilience Assessment Framework (RAF) are also available directly via her website at www.nextsteps-learningforlife.co.uk

Speaker
Biography:

Hanieh Abeditehrani is currently a PhD Candidate in clinical psychology, Young Researcher and Elite Club, Robatkarim Branch, Islamic Azad University, Robatkarim, Iran. She completed her M Psych at Allameh Tabatabai University in 2011-2013 and B Clinical Psychology from University of Tehran in 2006-2010. Before starting PhD program, she worked as a Clinical Psychologist in Tehran, Iran diagnosing and treating clients in hospitals, private and public clinics implementing CBT and psychodrama among others. Her PhD research is focused on comparing the effectiveness of psychodrama and CBGT in treatment of social anxiety disorder under the supervision of Professor Arnoud Arntz and Dr Corine Dijk.

Abstract:

Background: Anxiety is one of the symptoms in chronic schizophrenic patients. Past research studies show that psychodrama as a group therapy is effective in treatment and rehabilitation of psychological disorders.
Objective: The aim of this study is to explore the effect of psychodrama on the reduction of anxiety in schizophrenic patients.
Methods: Twenty-six male hospitalized chronic schizophrenic patients were randomly assigned into an experimental group (n=13) and a control group (n=13). Both groups were treated with antipsychotic drugs and were evaluated by using Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. Then the patients in the experimental group received 20 sessions of the treatment of psychodrama. Finally both groups were evaluated again. The pre-test and post- test scores were comprised by using T student Test.
Results: After psychodrama therapy, the average of total anxiety scores and affective symptoms of anxiety subscale decreased significantly in the experimental group (p<0.05), but there is no significant difference in somatic symptoms of anxiety subscale.

Aarti Sharma

Govindrakshak Ayurvedic and Acupuncture Centre, India

Title: Clinical study on management of depression through ayurveda

Time : 15:00-15:30

Speaker
Biography:

Aarti Sharma completed Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery (BAMS) from one of the premier Ayurvedic Colleges, Govt. Ayurvedic College, Patiala (India) in 2007. Since then she has been practising ayurveda for the treatment of lifestyle disorders, stress, gynecological issues, hepatic disorders, arthritis and other chronic ailments in her own clinic named Govindrakshak Ayurvedic and Acupuncture centre, Ludhiana (Punjab). During these years, she also completed Master’s in Nutrition and Dietetics, Postgraduate Diploma in Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Postgraduate Diploma in Yoga and Naturopathy along with a short-term course in Panchkarma. Suggesting a patient about diet, yoga, naturopathy, panchkarma along with Ayurvedic medicines and healthy lifestyle has always helped her patients for better recovery in a short span. She has been presenting her findings at various national and international conferences. Her work has been appreciated in all conferences.

Abstract:

Depression is very common mental health disorder which affects person’s way of thinking and behaviour. The present study was conducted at my clinic on 63 male patients between 40 to 45 years age who were clinically diagnosed of moderate depression based on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. These patients were divided into 3 groups (A, B and C). They were given ayurvedic treatment along with psychological counselling. Group A had 20 patients who were prescribed shavasan and anulom vilom pranayama. Group B had 17 patients who were given panchkarma treatment of Shirodhara in addition to above mentioned yoga and pranayama. Group C had 25 patients who were prescribed two ayurvedic formulations namely Saraswatarishta and Ashwagandharishta along with treatment prescribed to Groups A and B. These patients were clinically assessed after 7, 30, 60 and 90 days by Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Results obtained after 7 days, showed 15, 24 and 28% improvement in group A, B and C respectively. The patients showed gradual improvement and their anxiety level decreased, their interest in life increased. After one month, 35, 54 and 56% improvement in group A, B and C was observed. The patients exhibited more positivity in thoughts with an improvement in sleep. After two months of treatment, patients in group A, B and C showed 50, 66 and 72% of improvement respectively. Their persistent sadness, feeling of guilt gradually reduced. After three months of treatment, an improvement of 60, 72 and 84%, respectively was noticed in three groups. A remarkable improvement with positivity in thoughts and feeling of happiness was noticed. Results obtained showed that mental health disorders like depression can be effectively managed by ayurveda along with psychological counselling.

Yael Weinstein

University of Haifa, Israel

Title: The effect of different terror exposures on the course of schizophrenia

Time : 15:30-16:00

Speaker
Biography:

Yael Weinstein fields of interests are Trauma, Mental Health and Rehabilitation. Accordingly, her articles examine the connection between exposures to different types of trauma on a person’s mental health, and even examine the effects on the offspring’s, mental health. Her other field of interest is Statistical Methods. She currently teaches methodological courses in several academic universities is Israel. Furthermore, she is the R & D Director at Shekulo Tov Group, Israel. Shekulo Tov Group is an NGO which specializes in providing occupational services for people with mental disabilities all over Israel. As part of her job, she conducts internal research in the group, implement new methodological models, embed the Group’s Integrative Unit Model in new businesses and manages national and international collaborations with other researcher and professionals.

Abstract:

Statement of Problem: Between 40%-60% of the general population are victims of any lifetime trauma. Among persons with schizophrenia, however, this figure is estimated to be as high as 98%. Similarly, in the general population, the rate of exposure to man-made terror with reactive psychopathology of a posttraumatic psychiatric disorder is 7.5%, but among persons with schizophrenia disorder, this figure increases to 13%-29%. Despite these findings, few studies have examined the psychopathological aftermath of exposure to terror or the psychopathological consequences of different types of terrorist attacks among persons with schizophrenia.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: A nationally representative random sample with schizophrenia was merged with (I) psychiatric hospitalization data in the Israeli National Psychiatric Case Registry (1990-2012) and (II) terror attack data in the Global Terrorism Database. Time to psychiatric rehospitalization and the Colorado Symptom Index were examined following exposure to terror using Cox regression modeling and ANCOVAs after adjustment for confounders.
Findings: Increased likelihood of psychiatric rehospitalization was statistically (P<.05) associated with prior exposure to terrorist attacks involving bombings or explosions compared to exposure to armed assaults (adjusted HR=1.42, 95% CI=1.09- 1.84); and for attacks involving 1-3 fatalities (adjusted HR=1.47, 95% CI=1.22, 1.77) compared with no fatalities. This trend of statistical significance replicated for terrorist attack types across five sensitivity analyses. The effect of likely exposure to attacks with 1-3 fatalities was significant (P<.05) among males, however, not significant for females, or for 60, 90 and 120 days of follow-up.
Conclusion & Significance: Exposure to attacks with bombings or explosions and 1-3 fatalities among males modestly, but significantly, exacerbated the course of schizophrenia for subjective and objective outcomes. A tentative mechanism is that earlier age of onset among males facilitates less time for premorbid learning and subsequent postmorbid stress adjustment, thereby increasing reactive psychopathology.

Martina de Witte

University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Title: The effectiveness of music interventions on stress reduction: results of a meta-analysis

Time : 16:00-16:30

Speaker
Biography:

Martina de Witte, MA, MT-BC, NMT, is Lecturer and Researcher in Music Therapy and Coordinator of Research & Innovation at the Institution of Arts Therapies of HAN University of Applied Sciences in Nijmegen, The Netherlands. She is a Senior Certified Music Therapist at STEVIG (The Netherlands); a mental health institution for psychiatric treatment to people with mild intellectual disabilities. In partnership with the University of Amsterdam and the research group KenVak, she is running a PhD program. Her PhD program is focused on the effect of music (therapy) on arousal regulation in people with mild intellectual disabilities and stress related problems. The meta-analysis which is central in this presentation is one of the studies of this PhD program and offers a comprehensive overview of the effect of music interventions on stress regulation. Her work mainly focuses on bringing together the latest scientific evidence about the effects of music on stress regulation with everyday practice of music therapists and other professionals.

Abstract:

Listening to music and music making have been associated with a broad range of positive outcomes in the domains of health and well-being. Stress is believed to be one of the major factors negatively affecting our health in the 21st century and high stress levels have been shown to be strongly associated with many physical and emotional problems, such as cardiovascular disease, chronical pain, anxiety disorders, depression and burnout. Music interventions are used for stress reduction in all kinds of settings because of the assumed positive effects of music on stress reduction. Stress manifests itself as physiological arousal, indicated by increases in heart rate, blood pressure and hormonal levels. These physical components are also being influenced by music. More and more neurological evidence is available regarding the effects of music on stress regulation. Due to this growing body of evidence a meta-analysis of 69 randomized controlled trials (RCT), containing 235 effect sizes and 6,969 participants, were performed to assess the strength of the effect of music interventions on stress-related outcomes. Results are promising and show significant overall effects. Further, main results also provide evidence regarding the moderating factors of the music interventions which leads to the best effects. Implications for theory and practice are discussed regarding the use of music interventions for stress reduction.

Biography:

Jaime Senabre is a Psychologist and Master in Psychopathology and Health. He completed doctoral studies in the Department of Personality, Evaluation and Psychological Treatment of the UNED, related to Stress and the Immune System, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Moobing. Chief of Brigade in the Forest Fire Service of the Generalitat Valenciana, with more than 20 years of experience. With multidisciplinary training at the Master's level in areas such as: Occupational Health and Safety, Emergency Management, Sport  sychology, Human Resources Management, Mediation, Conflict Resolution and Coaching. Postgraduate in Environmental Consulting and Criminology. As a psychologist, he collaborates with several private clinical centers. Also, with several companies and institutions in the area of training in Psychology in Emergencies and Human Resources management. He is Professor at the University of Valencia in the Master in "Intervention and operational coordination in emergencies and catastrophes" and other postgraduate courses on emergencies. Director and President of the International Scientific-Professional Committee of the National Symposium on Forest Fires (SINIF). He is part of the Editorial Board of several international scientific journals and published numerous articles on forest fires, stress, psychosocial risks and emotional trauma, mainly in relation to emergency services and natural  isasters. Member of the Spanish Society for the Study of Anxiety and Stress (SEAS), and the Spanish Association of Clinical Psychology and Psychopathology (AEPCP).

Abstract:

Generally, when any type of disaster or catastrophe occurs, be it of natural or human origin, there is much talk about the number of victims and deaths, the magnitude of infrastructure and material goods affected, the economic amounts lost in the event, etc.
In the same way, much has been said and written about the psychological impact on victims and the community exposed to such an event. However, there is a type of hidden victims that, in many cases, tend to go unnoticed, perhaps in part because of their resistance to accepting that they are also vulnerable. I am referring to the members of the first response teams in emergencies (fire, police, health, etc.).
The presence of the scene, the proximity to the deadly victims and the nteraction with the survivors, as well as the work in highly toxic atmospheres or of great risk for the physical integrity, together with problems of organizational, familiar or interpersonal type, will exert a strong impact on these troops, with possible repercussions on their physical and mental health.
Moreover, they can be factors of vulnerability to suffer more or less severe episodes of Acute Stress, Post Traumatic Stress and Secondary Traumatic Stress, among others.
In the present work an approximation is made to the Secondary Traumatic Stress (STS) construct, a type of emerging labor condition in the professionals who develop their tasks of help and rescue with people exposed to critical incidents or vital events, as is the case of the  Fire fighter Departments.
Factors such as the history of personal traumas, the organizational context, the characteristics of the intervention and the individual personality, will significantly condition the capacity of resistance to the traumas in the professionals of the Fire Services.